Gold Coins
Greek Gold Coins
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Greek Gold Coins

Coinage was invented in the seventh century BCE in the Black Sea region northeast of Greece, where the alluvial flow of gold and silver mixed together yeilded the metal known as electrum. Gold and Silver had been used by the earliest Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations as a store of wealth, and a medium of trade. But this naturally occuring electrum was first coined by the kings of Lydia, Miletos, Ephesos, Phokia, and then Lesbos and Kyzykos.

These coins undoubtedly were responsible for a boom in trade both between city-states, and in the rapid escalation of local markets. Herodutus famously referred to the Lydians as a nation of shopkeepers.

The largest unit of trade was the "Stater" which was a translation of the semitic "Shekel," a unit of weight used in the semitic East. Weights varied from between 14 and 16 grams according to local standards. These staters were broken down into trites (thirds) hektes (sixths) and various smaller units.

Croesus of Lydia was the first king to separate the electrum to issue gold and silver coins circa 545 BCE. He was conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Darios I of Persia issued his own gold and silver coinage ca 510 BCE. Coinage spread quickly in the early fifth century BCE through the Greek city states. Most of the trade coinage was silver, while gold was most often reserved for emergency issues associated with war.

THE COINS: The Dawn of Coinage: click on the coins to see the image enlarged.

ARCHAIC GREEK COINS: LYDIA AND THE INVENTION OF COINAGE. The greatest invention of Western History is undoubtedly Alphbetic writing, without which there would not be western history. It was invented by the Phoencians in about 1000 BCE. By the late eighth century this writing had spread through the entire fertile crescent, up into the Black Sea Region and down into Greece. Alphabetic writing enabled private citizens to record, account for, and contractualize transactions; and private Phoenician traders dominated the Mediterranean. Previously all transactions had to be recorded by State sanctioned Scribes and all trade was controlled by the Royal Houses.

In the 7th Century BCE, the Black Sea Region was dominated by the Lydian Empire. The Kings of Lydia, (most probably Ardys or Allyates) eventually made use of this writing in combination with the image of the Lion, symbol of the Royal House, to invent the first coinage. They used Electrum, a naturally occurring gold and silver alloy found in the River Patroclus, though more recent studies have suggested that they intentionally fabricated the electrum.

The innovation of coinage enabled the Private Citizen to amass, store and preserve wealth in the form of money. This led to a boom in trade and the creation of the first merchant class independent from the Royal/Priest class that had previously enjoyed firm control over both trade and the storage of wealth.

It is certainly no coincidence that the Athenians, who adopted, and in many respects perfected, the systems of Alphabetic Language and Bimetallic Currency (using Kyzikene electrum staters for gold and Athenian Owls for silver), soon after invented Democracy - the system of Government that for the first time in human history honored the power (Kratos) of the Private Citizen (Demos) over that of the Autocratic or Plutacratic State.

The Lydian lion Trite (third stater) is undoubtedly the first general issue coin that was widely used in trade. Early issues bear inscriptions that are most often described as bearing the word "Walwel" in the Lydian script. However, there is no evidence that there was a Lydian script at this period. I believe it far more likely that some form of the Phoenecian script (familiar to the region through stamps and inscriptions used in the trade of wine and olive oil among other products), was used and that the inscription most probably reflected the current ruler's name. Later issues used the image of the lion without inscription. There are quite a few different dies from this period - some careslessly engraved and struck, others engraved with great skill.
The Dawn of Coinage:

KINGS OF LYDIA. ARDYS Circa 650-620 BCE.

EL Trite 1/3 stater (4.77g) Sardes mint. Head of roaring lion right, YRDYS in Phoenician lettering / Double square incuse punch. Weidauer 91-2. SNG Von Auluck 8204.

Very Sharp strike with clear letters and clean surfaces. An altogether superior example of this rare issue, and of the highest historical significance.

NGC graded AU, Str 5/5 surf 5/5
$29,000

IONIA, Uncertain Workshop. Circa 625-600 BC.

EL Trite – Third Stater (4.68 g). Lydo-Milesian standard. Geometric figure resembling a star, composed of a cross centered upon a polygon of eight sides / Rectangular incuse divided horizontally and vertically into four compartments by two perpendicular lines; the upper two compartments divided into thirds by two parallel lines; the lower two compartments divided into halves by a single line, the upper halves contain a pellet, the lower halves are bisected by two small vertical lines. Elektron I 16; Rosen Sale 12; SNG Kayhan 697; SNG Copenhagen (Cyprus, etc.), pl. 10, 318; Zhuyuetang 2; Konuk & Lorber fig. 14.

A fascinating and very rare issue from the dawn of coinage. Only two known staters and less than 20 known trites from this issue, and of those, very few are well centered (strike 5/5).

NGC graded CH XF, strk 5/5 surf 5/5
reserved

IONIA, Uncertain. Circa 650-600 BC. EL Trite – Third Stater (11.5mm, 4.58 g).

Lydo-Milesian standard. Globular surface with cluster of pellets / Two incuse squares. Weidauer –; Traité I 3; Elektron –; Rosen 253; SNG Kayhan –; SNG von Aulock 7761; Boston MFA 1749; Pozzi 2350

This type comes from a small horde of about 25 trites along with smaller denominations and a very few larger denominations. Before this, the type was known from a very few edamples. The horde was well preserved and though the trites receive varying grades they are all basically "As made."

The entire horde has been released recently, But like the striated horde and the geometric horde it will be quickly absorbed.

NGC AU strk 5/5 surf 5/5........sold

KINGS of LYDIA. temp. Alyattes – Kroisos. Circa 610-546 BC.

EL Trite – Third Stater (13mm, 4.72 g). Sardes mint. Head of roaring lion right, sun with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer Group XVI, 86–9; Traité I 44; SNG Kayhan 1013; SNG von Aulock 2868–9; Rosen 655-6.

Extremely Rare Mint State example. Only five mint state examples recorded in the recent NGC report - and none graded higher.

NGC MS Strk 5/5 surf 4/5...$30,000

KINGS of LYDIA. temp. Alyattes – Kroisos. Circa 610-546 BC.

EL Trite – Third Stater (13mm, 4.72 g). Sardes mint. Head of roaring lion right, sun with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer Group XVI, 86–9; Traité I 44; SNG Kayhan 1013; SNG von Aulock 2868–9; Rosen 655-6.

Well centered and struck from a die of well detailed style.

NGC AU Strk 4/5 surf 4/5 edge taps noted....................................sold

Though electrum coinage seems to have been invented in Lydia, the surrounding Black Sea States of Miletos, Ephesus, Phokaea, Lesbos, Erythraea and Samos all produced electrum coinage, though none in comparable (surviving) quantities to that of Kyzikos.

The earliest pieces from mints such as Miletos, Ephesos and other unidentified cities in the Black Sea area known as Ionia date from about 650 -600 BCE according to archeologival evidence as recorded from celebrated digs such as those funded by the British Museum. These dates have been challenged along purely speculative lines by modern numismatic theorists, using aesthetic (die studies etc) arguments to support dates ranging from 575 - 525 BCE. There is a visceral antipathy between archealogists and numismatists, so that the evidence brought by one group will be dismissed out of hand by the other.

There is agreement that the celebrated electrum coinage of Kyzikos served as a reserve currency throughout the Greek World and were treated as though they wee Gold.

An Athenian Ledger from 418 BCE, for example, records that Athens "handed over 4000 Kyzikene Staters to the Triarchs against Argos with Demosthenes." Many such entries make it clear that these served as a reserve currency along side the Athenian Owl coins, even in Athens.

It seems probable that Electrum Staters from other City States throughout the region began in competition with the Kyzikene Staters probably in the mide Seventh Century but, with the exception of Lampsakos, by the middle of the Sixth Century most has been eclipsed by the Kyzikene Staters.

IONIA, Uncertain. Miletos? Circa 650-600 BCE or 575-525 BCE.

EL Stater (14.25 g). Lydo-Milesian standard. Forepart of bridled horse left; rosette at breast, lotus at nape of the neck / Three incuses: a central rectangular punch flanked by two square punches. Fischer-Bossert, Horses 2 (dies H2/H1-H3); Weidauer 138–9; ACGC 56; Konuk & Lorber fig. 7; Le Rider, Naissance, pl. III, 7; SNG Kayhan 714 (same punches); Traité pl. II, 24.

Amongst the finest examples of this very rare issue, and one of the very few extant examples with a well struck horse around which the lotus-rosette motif is clearly visible on the flan.

The reverse punches bear marked resemblance to the lion staters of Miletos. Fischer-Bossert speculates that the lotus and rosette motif must derive from Persian rule which began in about 550 BCE. Yet this neglects the fact that these motifs are common to the Siva-Dionysiac religion that existed in this region centuries earlier. Whatever the case, these symbols are peculiar to this issue at this eartly date and as such are of tremendous fascination.

NGC Graded CH XF strk 4/5 surf 4/5
$27,500

The image of the Recumbent Lion is found on the gates of Babylon, on the walls of the Pyramids and before the gates of the City of Walls in China. It is the ultimate image of Protection, and it transverses all cutlures. The earliest numismatic Recumbant Lion image appears on the electrum coinage of Miletus.

Ionia, Miletus Circa 650-600 BCE or 575 - 525 BCE

EL Stater (22mm, 14.00 g). Lion reclining left, head reverted, within rectangular frame divided into smaller rectangular compartments / Central oblong punch, containing three pellets connected in Λ shape, two parallel lines, and a fox standing left; flanked by two square punches containing, respectively, a stellate pattern and a stag’s head left. Weidauer 126; Elektron I 61; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; SNG Kayhan 440; BMC 2; Boston MFA 1882; Kraay & Hirmer 591; Traité I 19 = C. Greenwell, “On some Rare Greek Coins” in NC 1897, pl. XI, 17; Konuk & Lorber fig. 18.

Very rare, especially in this condition

Ex Jacquier FPL 26 (Spring 2001), no. 79; Martin Huth Collection, purchased from Frank Sternberg.

NGC Graded CH XF strk 4/5 Surf 4/5
sold

Ionia, Miletus 650-550 BCE

Electrum Hekte, (2.33g.) Lion reclining left, its head reverted. Rev. Two square punches containing geometric designs (SNG Kayhan 443 var; cf Weidauer 130)

A remarkably detailed and complete lion in a state of preservation entirely exceptional for this rare and usually degraded issue. Far superior to any example listed in coin archives. Extremely rare thus.

Ex Dr. Larry Adams Collection

NGC Graded CH XF, Strike 5/5 surf 4/5
$3250

Ionia, Erythraia 550-500

EL Hekte – Sixth Stater (2.58 g). Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin; the lion skin has three rays emanating from its forehead and snout / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. SNG Kayhan 737–8 var. (without rays); cf. SNG von Aulock 1942 var. (same); SNG Copenhagen –; cf. Boston MFA 1806–7 var. (same); CNG E-332, lot 59.

Very rare variety of superior style:
With the lion skin having three rays emanating from its forehead and snout, much like the earlier electrum coinage issued by the Lydian kings.

NGC Graded CH AU★ Strk 5/5 surf 5/5
$3200

Pegasus is an entirley Greek image which encompasses the Greek notion of "Becoming" - which is to say that which is changing as opposed to that which is unchanging. This is a dialectic that informs the work of the greatest Greek philolophers from Heraclitus to Parmenides to Socrates.

The Gorgon Medusa is initially a beautiful girl who bewitches Poseidon. Poseidon rapes her in the temple of Athena. Enraged, Athena turns Medusa into a hideous creature whose gaze turns all to stone. When Medusa is slain by Perseus, Pegasus springs from Medusa's neck, completing the circle of change from beautiful to hideous and back to beautiful.

The first images of Pegasus appear on Greek pottery dating to the seventh century BCE. The first numismatic image appears on the coinage of Lampsakos shortly thereafter. Pegasus remains as the badge of Lampsokos for the next three hundred years.

The archaic pegasus on the electrum stater below displays a circular fluidity that perfectly encompasses the idea of "Becoming" in a way that is lost in later images.

Mysia, Lampsakos Circa 500-450 BC

Electrum Stater. (15.41grams) Forepart of Pegasos with curved wings to left, vine with bunches of grapes around / Quadripartite incuse square. A. Baldwin, Period I, pl I, 11; BMC 9; Traité pl. 8, 2. 12; SNG BN 1111; SNG von Aulock 1292 var. (monogram below Pegasos); SNG Copenhagen Supp. 305 var. (same); Boston MFA 1582

A beautiful example of this quitessentially Greek image. Perfectly centered and struck on a full round flan with a beatuful tone. The vast majority of this early issue are poorly struck and centered.

NGC Graded CH XF Strk 5/5 surf 4/5
$12,500

ZEUS AND HIS MESSENGER EAGLE: A MASTERPIECE OF GREEK CLASSICAL ART

MYSIA, Kyzikos. 5th-4th centuries BC.

EL Stater ( 15.91 g). Zeus kneeling right, chiton draped from waist, holding scepter in right arm, left arm extended, above which an eagle stands right, with open wings; below, tunny right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze I 145; Greenwell 2; SNG France 296; Boston MFA 1530 = Warren 1422.

Very Rare and far superior to the Prospero excample that sold for $33,000, beautiful complete image of Zeus and his messenger Eagle, a few minor scuffs on the obverse.

The scepter of Zeus becomes the symbol of royalty in western culture, and Zeus' Eagle becomes the symbol of Imperial Power in empires throughout western history from Rome to the United States.

NGC Graded CH XF strk 5/5 surf 3/5
Fine Style noted, scuffs noted
...$17000

MYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 550-450 BC.

EL stater (22mm, 15.99 gm)  Forepart of winged lion flying/ stalking left, right foreleg raised, tunny fish right / Quadripartite incuse square in "mill sail" pattern. Von Fritze 96. SNG France 237.

Rare and exceptionally well-struck and centered on a broad flan, with smooth surfaces. Among the finest surviving specimensm and certainly one of the most dramatic electrum images.

NGC Graded AU strk 5/5, surf 4/5, Fine Style noted.....................$20,000

MYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 550-500 BC.

EL Stater (16.16 g). Head of lion left; behind, tunny upward / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze I 39; Boston MFA 1414; SNG von Aulock 7272; SNG France 178.

Striking Archaic lion, roughly contemporary to the early Lions of Lydia and Miletos, though considerably more serene. The lion was the symbol of Royalty for the Achaean hordes that invaded Black Sea Region and then Greece in waves from 1200 BCE.

Perfectly centered and struck on a broad clean flan. Among the finest known for this issue.

NGC Graded CH XF★ Strk 5/5 Surf 5/5............................................$8,500

THE SIVA/SILENOS HEKTE: There is no doubt that the first wave of settlers who conquered Crete and then Greece were Siva-worshipping fertililty cultists from the Indus Valley as early as 3500 BCE. Their God, Siva, became Dio-Nysus (the God of Nysus - the birthplace of Shiva). The Dionyisiac religion was later incorporated into the Sky-God religion of the Aryan speaking tribes that flooded into Macedonia and then Greece in waves starting around 1200 BCE.

The Hekte below bears a portrait of Silenos: Dionysus' alter ego, portayed with a clear Third Eye in the middle of his forehead - linking Dionysus direclty to Siva. This very rare archaic masterpiece clearly demonstrates the importance of coinage as documentation of an era from which very little writing has survived.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC.

EL Hekte – Sixth Stater (2.57 g). Facing head of Silenos, small seal/ Quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt Em. 43; Boston MFA –; SNG von Aulock –; BMC 3; SNG Fitzwilliam 4559.

Very rare, of great historical interest, and certainly amongst the finest extant.

NGC graded CH AU strk 5/5 surf 4/5
$6,750

The Aechemenid or Persian Empire was forged by Cyrus the Great (biblical liberator of the Jews of the Babylonian captivity). In about 550 BCE, Cyrus I conquered Croesus of Lydia, and adopted his system of gold and silver coinage. The Persian Empire dominated three continents spanning from Parthia and Bactria (modern day India) through Mesopotamia to the Black Sea Region and down through the Fertile Crescent.

Around 505 BCE the Persian king Darios I decided to inaugurate a gold coinage bearing his own types, rather than continuing to use those of Kroisos of Lydia. These new coins, called Darics (meaning, literally, 'Of the King' - the same LMLK inscription that traveled from the fertile crescent to Lydia) - bore a generalized portrait of the Persian king. The earliest, which employs an image of the King shooting an arrow, is very rare; though a tiny horde has been recently discovered.. This coin financed Darios' war with Greece. Later types must have been produced in enormous numbers, and were surely the reserve currency' of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.

The last Achemenid King, Darios III, was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE. With the fall of Persia to Alexander, the vast majority of the then existing darics were surely melted down to supply bullion for Alexander’s own gold staters.

PERSIA. Achaemenid Empire. Darius I - (ca. 505-480 BC).

AV daric (8.35 gm).  Great King in kneeling-running stance right, drawing back bow and preparing to shoot arrow / Rectangular incuse punch with irregular interior surface. CarradiceType II (pl. XI, 11) BMC Arabia -; SNG Copenhagen -..

Beautiful, fully centered and well detailed example. Extremely rare, especially in this condition. The small horde of about 20 specimens that hit the market in 2014 have long since been absorbed..

NGC graded MS ★strike 5/5 surf 5/5
reserved

PERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. Time of Artaxerxes I-Xerxes II. Ca 455-420 BC.

AV Daric (8.33 gm). Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding dagger / Incuse punch. Carradice Type IV, Group A (pl. XIII, 32); BMC Arabia pl. XXVI, 9.

A very rare variety of a rare type. The reverse is from an issue that had been inscribed with a lion's head, though the lion's head has been erased prior to this strike. A small horde of 'dagger darics' was discovered over 10 years ago and no new specimens have been recorded since.

Condition rarity of a rare coin.

Ex CNG 67

NGC graded CH MS stk 5/5 surf 5/5
POR

PERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. Time of Xerxes II-Artaxerxes II (ca. 420-375 BC).

AV daric (15mm, 8.33 gm). Persian king or hero in kneeling-running position right, wearing kidaris (crown) with four points and kandys (royal robe), holding transverse spear with round rear terminal in right hand and bow in left; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch with rough interior surface. Carradice Type IIIb B. 

Perfectly centered, fully struck, lustrous, superior example: in the top 15 percent of the issue according to NGC.

NGC Graded MS ★ strk 5/5 - surf 4/5 $5750 

PERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Artaxerxes II to Darios III. Circa 375-336 BC.

AV Daric (15.5mm, 8.31 g). Lydo-Milesian standard. Sardes mint. Persian king or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, quiver over shoulder, in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear in right hand, bow in left / Patterned incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb Late (pl. XV, 50); Meadows, Administration –; BMC Arabia pl. XXV, 24; Sunrise 39 corr.

Very Rare late type perfectly centered with superb style, far more fluid and elegant and much rarer than the earlier 'fine style" type. Attributed to the Sardes mint, but the striated reverse and fluid style is reminiscent of the Alexandrine darics from the Babylon mint.

The same type in similar condition sold for $16,800: Triton xxi lot 529

NGC MS strk 4/5 surf 3/5, fine style noted.....................................$8500

ATHENS was,without a doubt, the source of much of what has become viewed as Greek Culture: Democracy, Philosophy, Tragedy, Comedy, Rhetoric.

It is currently fashionable to view the Greeks as "Anthropomorphic Polytheists." Yet when Euripides (ca 480 BCE) has Hecabe (widow of Priam) pray in the "Trojan Women," she says: "Zeus, whether you be force of nature or intelligence in man..."

We can see through this quote that a very specific idea of Human Intelligence is as central to Greek religion as to its art and institutions. Athena was Goddess of Wisdom. The Owl a symbol of Human Intelligence. Thus the images on the coins of Athens were aptly chosen, and would have had evocative connotations for the average Athenian.

ATTICA, Athens. Circa 454-404 BC.

AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 17.17 g,). Helmeted head of Athena right, with frontal eye / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; HGC 4, 1597.

Beautifully toned and perfectly centered example in the finest style for the issue.. Tremendous eye appeal.

NGC Graded MS Strk 5/5 surf 3/5
$2550

MACEDONIA: Philip II of Macedon (359-336 BCE) inherited a war torn country from his brother Pedikas III. From his years as hostage of neighboring Thebes he learned the military strategy based on the phalanx whose manoevers were hidden by rows of warriors bearing "sarissas" - immensely long spears. A gifted warrior and statesmen, Philip, by a combination of strategic alliances and dramatic wars, managed to conquer Macedonia, Illyria, Epirus, Thrace, Thessaly and all of Greece save Sparta. He then set his eyes on Persia, but was murdered on the eve of his planned invasion.

Philip was both a learned man of letters and the arts and a voluptuary of great appetites. Pella, The Macedonian capital had long been a refuge for Greek men of letters, actors and artitsts. Euripedes wrote the Bacchae there, describing a tradition that had been a force in that region for many centuries. Philip also established a strong link to Plato's school, and many philosophers became residents of Pella. Aristotle, who had formed his own school became a tutor during his sonAlexander's formative years.

Alexander III The Great inherited the throne along with his father's love and respect of the Arts and Letters as well as his powerful appetites for wine and beautiful women. He conquered Persia and then India, extending his Empire throughout most of the known world.

Alexander is by far the greatest Classical Hero of well recorded times. His education in the arts and letters inspired him to tracvel with a retinue of writers and artists. Thus his exploits were chronicled by contemporaries Ptolemy, Heironymus, Nearchus (Alexander's admiral), Aristobulus (Alexander's chief engineer) and Calisthenes (Aristotle's nephew) whose writings, though lost, were read and synthesized by Arrian of Nicomedia, much of whose work survives to this day. Herodotus , Diodorus, and Quintus Curtius roughly contemporay to Arrian, also wrote histories that are still partially extant, also drawing on the writings of Alexander's contemporaries.

His image was also recorded by some of the greatest artists of the period. He traveled with reknowned Sculptor Lyssippos, and the reknowned gem carver Pyrgoteles. The coin engraving during this period, and especially during the period following his death was certainly heavily influenced by the court artists who surely trained the some of the engravers who went on to carve masterpieces at the Pella, Lampsakos, Kolophon and Magnesia mints. Much of the portraiture of this period is unrivaled.

KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC. AV Distater (17.17 g) Aigai/ pella(?) mint.

Lifetime issue, struck circa 332-323 BC. Head of Athena right, / ALEXANDROU, Nike standing left, vertical thunderbolt in left field, LO monogram below left wing. Price 191; Very Rare. struck in high relief, Certainly amongst the finest, if not the finest extant.

NGC graded CHOICE MINT STATE strike 5/5, surface 5/5...............sold

After Alexander's death from fever in Babylon, his General, Perdikkas seized control and legitimized his reign by passing the crown to Alexander's infirm half-brother Philip III, Arrhideus, who was eventually murdered by Olympia, Alexander's mother. Perdikkas was immediately contested by the rest of Alexander's generals, especially the inner circle referred to as his "bodyguards," who split up the empire in a series of bloody wars.

Lysimachus ultimately took Thrace. He produced a series of gold staters that became a standard of trade coinage that endured for 300 years.

Ptolemy Soter (the savior) took Egypt, and founded a dynasty that lasted 300 years. He was the first living king to issue coinage with his own image.

Seleukos Nikator (the victor), was chosen along with Ptolemy, Perdikkas and Lysimachos to personally accompany Alexander on the decisive assault in India. though he was only a junior officer in Alexander's army. After Alexander's death, Seleukos served as a general under Perdikkas, but eventually switched sides and murdered Perdikkas in his tent during the ill-fated attack on Ptolemy in Egypt.

He then took over Babylon along with Peithon but soon fell under the control of Antigonus Monopthalmos when that General conquered all of Asia. But in 311 BCE Seleukos, supported by his old friend Ptolemy, was able to unseat Antigonos and claim Asia for himself, making his capital Antioch. He eventually was able to extend his Empire as far east as India. He defeated Lysimchos in 281, to regain most of Alexander's empire, save for Egypt.

The Seleuked Kings figures prominently in the Old Testament Book of the Maccabees (as villains).

Though current fashion is to attribute some gold Alexander types to Seleukos, Antigonos, Ptolemy and the other generals. this is largely guesswork. Gold coinage in the name of Seleukos and the other generals is very rare.

KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC.

AV Lifetime Stater (17.5mm, 8.59 g,). Lampsakos mint. Struck under Kalas or Demarchos, circa 328/5-323 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; conjoined horse foreparts in left field, monogram below left wing. Price 1358; ADM II Series V

Well centered and lovely Style both sides, typical excellent engraving from the Lampsakos mint.

NGC MS strk 5/5 surf 4/5.....sold


KINGS of MACEDON. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC.

AV Stater (18.5mm, 8.55 g,). Abydos mint. Struck under Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I Monophthalmos. Helmeted head of Athena right / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; in left field, monogram above serpent right. Price P31; ADM II Series X.

perfectly centered both sides with refined style by a skilled engraver especially on the obverse.

NGC MS strk 5.5 surf 3/5...... $4500

SELEUKID EMPIRE. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC.

AV Stater in the name of Seleukos. (16.5mm, 8.61 g, 9h). Seleukeia on the Tigris mint I. Struck circa 300-296/5 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing single pendant earring, necklace, and triple-crested Corinthian helmet adorned with a coiled serpent / BAΣIΛEΩ-[Σ] ΣEΛEYKOY, Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling stylis in left arm; monogram below right wing. SC 115.2 var. (monogram and position); ESM 1 var. (same); HGC 9, 4d; CSE 939 = Sunrise 170 var. (same, same obv. die). Extremely rare variety, unpublished in SC. Ex Dr. Larry Adams collection

A remarkable and extremely rare portrait of very fine style (though not noted as such by NGC). The features of "Athena" bear a marked resemblance to those of Seleukos when compared to the silver portrait tetradrachms. One of the few coins in the name of Seleukos I

Image result for seleucus tetradrachm

NGC graded CH AU ★ strk 5/5 surf 4/5............................................$13,500

Little is known of Philip III. He is thought to have been dim witted, but then so was Claudius, and he turned out to be brilliant. It is probable that he was infirm as he took no part in Alexander's conquests though Alexander was said to have been quite fond of him. Whatever the case, Philip - at some point - under the auspices first of Perdikkas, and then Antigonos Monopthalmos, and finally his wicked step mother Olympias, produced an astounding Fine Style coinage borrowing stylisitcally from the coinage of his father Philip II. But instead of a stylized head of Apollo, his master artists at the Kolophon, Abydos Lampsokos and Pella mints engraved magnficent portraits. Some of the most brilliant coins bear the likeness of Alexander the Great. Others, are unidentifed, though clearly modelled after real subjects.

The reasons behind this startling artistic departure from previous engraving is unknown. Certainly there was a premium on establishing dynastic lineage. And certainly there was an artist or group of artists capable of high quality fine style portraiture. Beyond that, we can only speculate.

KINGS of MACEDON Philip III. 323-317BCE

AV Stater (8.56 g,). Kolophon mint. circa 323-319 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, with the features of Alexander the Great/ FILIPPOU, charioteer (Pelops - the derivation of the name Philip) driving biga right, tripod below horses. Thompson in Studio Paulo Naster Oblata S. 58, 4.

Early Alexander portrait. Extremely Rare - the finest of a handful known. Superbly realized with realistic features in high relief, in relation and distinction to the idealized Kolophon portrait below - though, quite possibly by the same artist. A coin of great historical and numismatic interest.

NGC graded Choice AU ★ strike 5/5, surf 5/5, fine style noted.............$22,000

KINGS of MACEDON Philip III. 323-317BCE


AV Stater (8.60 g,). Kolophon mint. circa 323-319 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, with the features of Alexander the Great/ FILIPPOU, charioteer (Pelops - the derivation of the name Philip) driving biga right, tripod below horses. Thompson, Philip 12, Le Rider pl. 93, 26;

With a superb portrait of Alexander the Great. Struck shortly after Alexander's death in Babylon, in the name of Philip III, most probably under the direction of Perdikkas, who controlled Alexander's embalmed corpse - until it was stolen by Ptolemy. A stunning piece, struck from fresh dies with a wonderful tone and full weight to the 100th of a gram. Certainly amongst the finest - if not the finest - extant. A near perfect coin of a most important type.

NGC graded Choice Mint State ★
strk 5/5. surf 5/5 fine style noted
POR

KINGS of MACEDON Philip III. 323-317BCE

Extremely Rare portrait perhaps of a young Demetrios Poliorketes, (8.60 grams) - as can be seen when compared to the finest style portraits of Demetrios' own extensive coinage. Struck under his father Antigonos Monoptholmos who was at the time Archon over all of Asia. Lampsakos mint. ; ADM II Series VIII., Thompson, Philip 35; 

Demetrios was famously handsome. Arrian tells the story of how Antigonos stormed over to Demetrios quarters after his son had missed a Gerneral's meeting, only to pass a young beauty fleeing at his approach. "I've had a fever, father," Demetrios explained. "Yes, I saw her on my way in," replied Antigonos.

Stunning masterpiece of Greek portraiture, probably engraved by the same brilliant artist who did the portraits of Alexander (also during this period at the Lampsakos as well as the Kolophon mint). Perfect strike and pristine surfaces. Mystery "3" on the surface grade.

NGC graded MS, Strk 5/5, surf 3/5, fine style noted..........................$15,500

Image result for lysippos bust of ALexander Image result for Pyrgoteles

Roman copy of a bust by Lyssippos of Alexander

and a gem engraved by Pyrgoteles

KINGS of THRACE. Lysimachos. 323-281 BC.

AV Stater (8.39 gm). Byzantium mint 225-205 BC. Diademed head of deified Alexander right, wearing horn of Ammon / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛΥΣIMAXOΥ, Athena seated left, holding Nike, with shield, spear behind;

Superb portrait of Alexander the Great - clearly from a contemporary marble. Unique and unrecorded in the standard references, and of a remarkable style in distinction to all other Lysimachos types from this period.

NGC graded: CH AU, strike 5/5, surf 4/5, fine style noted, rev marks noted.
$12,500

In about 255 BCE, Diodotus, Satrap of the Northern Indian province known as Baktria seceded from the Seleukid Empire ruled by Antiochus II. At first he struck coins in the name of Antiochus II, and later in his own name. There are no contemporary sources for this historical event other than the coins. All the Baktrian gold coins were extremely rare until a horde came to light about 12 years ago. For mysterious reasons, almost all the coins were marked by test cuts, most often right on the head of Diodotus. Most of the horde has long since been assimilated and coins in mint condition without the test cut are extremely rare.

Kingdom of Baktria, Diodotus I 255-235 BC

AV Stater (8.28gm) In the name of Antiochus II. first Diodotic mint in Eastern Asia (Aï Khanoum) circa 250-235, AV 8.29 g. Diademed of Diotus I r. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ − ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Zeus advancing l., hurling thunderbolt and with aegis draped on extended r. arm; at his feet, eagle l. Bopearachchi serie 1a. Seleucid Coins 629.2.

Beautiful portrait style and very rare in this condition and without a test cut.

NGC graded MS ★ Strk 5/5 Suf 4/5
Fine Style noted......................$17,500

PTOLEMAIC EGYPT: After the death of Alexander the Great, his generals (referred to as his bodyguards) split up his empire in a series of wars. Lysimachus took Thrace. Seleukos Nikator (the victor) won the Eastern Empire, making his capital Antioch; and Ptolemy Soter (the savior) took Egypt.

The Ptolemies presided over a tremendous period of financial and cultural prosperity that included the founding of the museum/college at Alexandria, which hosted the brightest scholars, scientists, mathemeticians and philosophers of the day, and the famed library which imported and commissioned copies of all the important literature of the era, including the translation of the Old Testament know as the Septuagint. This translation provides us with the earliest extant version of the five Books of Moses (Pentateuch). Ptolemy I himself wrote a difinitve history of Alexander's campaigns.

Remarkably, Alexandria, to this day, remains a center of learning and culture in North Afica.

The Ptolemies produced a prolific gold coinage, as Egypt lay in the center of the trade route that included the gold mines of Guinea West Africa, and Kush (Auxum/Ethiopia). Yet their coinage seems to have been used exclusively within Egypt.

PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy I Soter. 305-282 BC

Gold Triobol or Hemidrachm (1.79 g ) Alexandreia. Bust of Ptolemy I to right, wearing diadem and aegis around his neck. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ Eagle with open wings standing on thunderbolt to left; to left, monogram of ΜΥ. Svoronos 200.

A rare little coin - only 8 have been graded and only 2 higher than this one. It is part of the first issue in history in which a living king put his own image on a coin. Minor edge marks account fot the surface grade, otherwise attractive, and well centered for the issue.

NGC graded AU strk 4/5 surf 3/5 edge marks noted............................... $2600

Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 285-246 BC.

Pentadrachm, Alexandria 277 BC, AV 17.80 g. Diademed head r., wearing aegis. Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ – ΠTOΛEMAIOY Eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, wings closed; in l. field, Σ over shield and between legs, regnal year I (10).Svoronos 573 and pl. XIII, 3 SNG Copenhagen – Boston –

A very rare variety and in exceptional condition. Magnificent portrait in a powerful and elegant style and quite probably the finest graded.

NGC graded CH MS ★ strk 5/5 surf 5/5...........................................reserved

Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I, 285-246 BC.

Mnaeion or Octodrachm Gold, (24mm, 27.77 g), struck after 265 BCE. ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ Diademed jugate busts of Ptolemy II, draped, and Arsinoe II, veiled, to right; behind, Gallic shield. Rev. ΘΕΩΝ Diademed jugate busts of Ptolemy I, draped, and Berenike I, veiled, to right. SNG Copenhagen 132. Svoronos 603

The dynastic "Family" oktadrachms for Ptolemy II are the earliest of the large gold pieces and are far scarcer than the later Arsinoe and radiate type oktadrachms.

A few light marks on the neck of Ptolemy II do not detract fom the unusually pleasing style.

NGC graded AU, strk 5/5, surf 4/5
fine style noted, marks noted.

$24,000

PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I. 285-246 BC.

AV half-mnaieion or tetradrachm (20mm, 13.94 gm)  Alexandria, dated Year 1 (of deification?), ca. 271/0 BC. Jugate busts of Ptolemy II, draped and diademed, and Arsinoe II, diademed and veiled, right; AΔEΛΦΩN above, date (?) A above Gallic shield behind / Jugate busts of Ptolemy I, diademed and draped, and Berenice, diademed and veiled, right; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 614.

Extremely rare dated issue in fine style: and especially rare in mint state.

Well struck from dies engraved by a skilled hand, with a "matte proof" appearance. The year "A" above the Gallic shield indicates the first year of something - either the reign, the issue, or perhaps, as Svoronos suggests, the Apoptheosis of Arsinoe II. Svoronos lists only 4 known of this type, and only five more were counted in the recent horde, making this an extremely rare issue indeed..

The light marks noted seem to refer to some very minor surface roughness, only visible under magnification, as I can't see any "Marks" at all.

NGC MS strk 5/5, surf 4/5 Fine Style noted, lt marks noted........$17,500

PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Arsinoe II Philadelphos. Died 270/268

BC. AV Mnaieion – ‘Oktadrachm’ (28mm, 27.70 g, 11h). Alexandreia mint. Struck under Ptolemy II, circa 253/2-246 BC. Head right with ram’s horn, veiled and wearing stephanos; lotus-tipped scepter in background, Λ to left / APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopia, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet. Svoronos 476; Olivier & Lorber dies 1/10; Troxell, Arsinoe, Group 3, p. 44 and pl. 7, 4 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen –; Adams –; Boston MFA –; BMC 11 (same obv. die); Hunt IV 500 (same obv. die); Pozzi 3224 (same obv. die).

Rare Lambda Λ control mark issue, of superior style, with an epeptional strike.. Thought to have been struck to commemorate the apotheosis of Arsinoe II. and thus possibly related to the tetradrachm above.

NGC Graded CH XF Strk 5/5 surf 4/5 Fine Style noted,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,sold

WESTERN GREEK GOLD: As mentioned, western Greek Gold, was often a product of emergency war issues, minted to pay off armies. Carthage, Epirus, Syracuse, and Calabria all minted gold pieces, often in conjunction with wars waged against a new rising power in the region: Rome.

Dionysus I of Syracuse (432-367 BCE) engaged in numerous wars during his long reign. He was reputed to be a bloodthirsty tyrant of literary and artistic pretensions. He invited Plato and Philistus to his court; he wrote his own plays and poetry, and he hired the greatest artists of the day to carve dies for his coinage. Among the most beautiful achievements of classical Greek art are some of the dies carved by Euainetos such as the 100 litrae featured below:

SICILY, Syracuse, Dionysus I
405-367 BCE

AV 100 Litrae (5.79g) 405-400 BCE obv: Head of Arethustra with triple pendant, earing, and necklace. Hair ornamented with stars, star behind ear. Rev: Herakles strangling the Nemean lion. Berend 40, SNG ANS 337, Delepierre 687.

High relief dies in the finest style of - but not signed by - Euainetos. A few light surface marks on the reverse (that do not effect the image) but notably free of the die rust that plagues this issue.. Extremely rare in MS. One of the most beautiful coins ever minted, in extraordinary condition.

NGC graded Mint State, strike 5/5, surf 3/5, fine style noted............sold

Agothokles was son of a potter who moved to Syracuse ca 343 BCE. He entered the army, rose qickly through the ranks then tried to engineer a coup for which he was banished. He returned with an army of mercenaries and subdued most of Sicily. Then he entered into a series of wars with Carthage. Agothokles was another great tyrant who likened himself to Alexander the Great.

SICILY, Syracuse. Agathokles. 317-289 BC.

AV Drachm – Hemistater ( 4.29 g, ). Struck circa 317-310 BC. Head of Apollo left, wearing laurel wreath;/ Charioteer, holding kentron in extended right hand, reins in left, driving galloping biga right; triskeles below, ΣYP-AK-OΣ-IΩN around. Cf. Bérend, l’or pl. 9, 1; BAR Issue 1; HGC 2, 1276; SNG ANS 551 ; SNG Lloyd 1472–3 ; Dewing 934 ;

An exceptionally attractive style for the issue.

NGC Graded AU ★ Strk 5/5 surf 4/5 Fine Style noted........................$5700

SICILY, Syracuse. Agathokles. 317-289 BC

AV stater or double dekadrachm (5.69g). circa 305-289 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a griffin, single-pendant earring and necklace / ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ, winged thunderbolt; monogram below. SNG ANS 702 and cf 704

Ex Robert O Ebert collection, Gemini V graded FDC A rare and spectacular piece: perfectly centered and struck. Fully lusterous and of superior style. Certainly amongst the finest extant.

NGC Graded MS ★ strk 5/5 surf 5/5
fine style noted...........................$18,000

Carthage was founded by Semitic Phoenician (Punic) traders around 700 BCE. About 300 years earlier The Phoenicians had developed the single greatest invention in Western History: the Alpahbetic system of writing. This Alphabet was quickly adopted by both the Aryan speaking tribes of Greece and the Black Sea (from whom we get Greek and then Latin) and the Semitic tribes of the Fertile Crescent (from whom we get Hebrew and the Arabic languages.)

This system took written language out of the domain of priests and scribes and into the hands of merchants, householders, and essentially any bright shephard who put in a little hard study time.

In one of the great ironies of history, because the Phoenecians used this language primarily for practical accounting purposes, we know relatively little about this brilliant civilization, whereas their cousins to the South - the Judaeans (whose language, customs, city planning, art and religion were manifestly similar) - adopted the system of writing and created a narrative literature that captured the imagination of people down to this day.

Through a quirk of linguistic fate, the Judaeans called their God 'El,' rather than the Phoenecian 'Baal,' and then the Aramaic speaking Arabs called their God 'Elah' - distinctions that formed the justification for thousands of years of bloody tribal conflict.

By the third century BCE, enriched by control of the gold trade from Senegal, Guinea and Kush, Carthage had become a military powerhouse of the Southern Mediteranean. The Punic goddess Tanit\Astarte (the consort of Baal) and the horse had become the standard types of Carthaginian coinage and remained so for the balance of the city’s existence. Tanit is always depicted on the coinage wearing a wreath of grain just like her Greek counterpart Demeter.

Carthage waged a series of successful wars in Sicily and Italy ( notably under Hannibal - or Hani-Baal priest of baal) until it was destroyed in 146 BCE after the third Punic War by the Romans.

Zeugitana. Carthage. c. 350-320 BC.

CARTHAGE. Circa 350-320 BC. AV Stater ( 9.23 g,). Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring, and necklace with nine pendants / Horse standing right; three pellets on ground line. Jenkins-Lewis, III f MAA 4.

A stunning and lustrous coin, well centered and struck from dies of fine style. Rare in this condition.

NGC graded MS strk 5/5, surf 4/5
sold


For info, comments, purchase requests contact: Jeff Kahn at Jkahn21@nyc.rr.com
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